[8], The Cane Corso is a large dog of molossoid type, and is closely related to the Neapolitan Mastiff. While they're known for being incredibly loyal, laid back and gentle with their families, these big dogs aren't for the faint-hearted. See also the Duncombe Dog, Mariotto di Nardo, Natività, ca. Italian Translation of “guard dog” | The official Collins English-Italian Dictionary online. They were extremely popular in Italy but were nearly lost as a breed during World War ll. It has been used for centuries by Italian shepherds to guard sheep from wolves. White markings are common on the chest, tips of toes, the chin, and the bridge of the nose. The English name of the breed derives from that of the Maremma marshlands where, until recently, shepherds, dogs and hundreds of thousands of sheep over-wintered[2]and where the breed is today abundant, although sheep herding has decreased substantially. Carbyn, S.H. [1] Until 1860, the mountains of the Abruzzo and the plains of the Maremma lay in different countries. It is well muscled[8] and less bulky than most other Mastiff breeds. In name and form the Cane Corso predates its cousin the Neapolitan Mastiff. [1], The head of the Cane Corso is arguably its most important feature. The eyes are almond in shape, set straight and when viewed from the front, set slightly above the line of the muzzle. [22] A small number have been used since 2006 on Middle Island, off Warrnambool, in Victoria, Australia, to protect a small population of the little penguin (Eudyptula minor) against red foxes. And they are another guard dog of the Mastiff type. A 2017 study of 232 Cane Corso dogs across 25 countries found an average life span of 9.3 years, varying with different coat colours. The first standard for the breed was drawn up in 1924 by Luigi Groppi and Giuseppe Solaro. The Italian Maremma, or to give him his proper name, the 'Pastore Maremmano Abruzzese', is the most popular flock guardian of all Italian dog breeds. Wolves in a changing world. Similar dogs are depicted in numerous sculptures and paintings from Roman times to the present. [23][24], A working Maremmano on the Gran Sasso of Abruzzo, Italy. Marelli, A. Monaghé, M. Polli, L. Guidobono Cavalchini (2003). Neopolitan Mastiff Appearance Brindling of varying intensity is common on both basic coat colours as well, creating Tigrato (black brindle), and Grigio Tigrato (blue brindle). Columella, writing in the 1st century A.D., recommends white dogs for this purpose, as the shepherd can easily distinguish them from the wolf, while Varro suggests that white dogs have a "lion-like aspect" in the dark. Darker eyes are preferred, however, the color of the eyes tends to emulate the shade of brindling in the coat.[3]. The muzzle is flat, rectangular (when viewed from above), and generally as wide as it is long; approximately 33% the total length of the skull (a ratio of 2:1). Standard del cane da pastore maremmano abruzzese, Le Origini del cane Pastore - Maremmano Abruzzese, Livestock guarding dogs: their current use world wide by Robin Rigg 2001, Cane da pastore Maremmano Abruzzese - Lo Standard, Abruzzese Shepherd Dog - Types and Subtypes by Marco Petrella, Caratteristiche del Cane da difesa del gregge, L'Allevamento del Cane da difesa del gregge, Penguin numbers up after world-first maremma trial - 13/12/2006, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maremmano-Abruzzese_Sheepdog&oldid=991117436, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Italian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Rough ink drawings on the maps of the pasture-lands of the, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 10:17. In Italy today, they're widely regarded as a national treasure and much beloved. [6] The explanation given is that a "natural fusion" of the two types had occurred as a result of movement of the dogs due to transhumance of sheep flocks from one region to another, particularly after the unification of Italy. You will often see them guarding more or less anything in the fields of rural Italy as they have been doing since the 1st Century A.D. Dogs used for flock protection are placed among the sheep as young puppies – no more than 40 days old – so that they bond with them; human contact is kept to the indispensable minimum. The Cane Corso (pronounced [ˈkaːne ˈkɔrso]) is an Italian breed of mastiff. There were no further registrations for many years. Here's how you say it. Fritts and D.R. On 1 January 1958 the breeds were unified by the ENCI, the Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiano, the national dog association of Italy. Need to translate "guard dog" to Italian? History S.P. cited in: Lorna Coppinger and Raymond Coppinger. The Maremma dog. The literal English translation of the name is "The dog of the shepherds of the Maremma and Abruzzese region". [21] If there are already guardian dogs in the flock, the puppy imitates and learns from their behaviour. It should be solid white; some minor yellowing may be tolerated. [17], Some divide the breed into various subtypes, largely based on small differences in physical attributes and with subtype names based on village and provincial names where the dogs may be found, e.g. The longest living were black brindle dogs (10.3 years) followed by brindle dogs (10.1 years), grey brindle dogs (9.8 years), fawn dogs (9.0 years), black dogs (9.0 years), grey dogs (9.0 years) and other colour dogs (8.1 years). The literal English translation of the name is "The dog of the shepherds of the Maremma and Abruzzese region". Canadian Circumpolar Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It is used for personal protection, tracking, law enforcement, as a guard dog, and as a companion dog. It is used for personal protection, tracking, law enforcement, as a guard dog, and as a companion dog. [9], These dogs are docile and affectionate to their owners, loving with children and family, and easily trained. [7] It was recognised by the American Kennel Club of the United States in 2010. Similar-looking dog breeds include the Pyrenean Mountain Dog (known as the Great Pyrenees in North America), the Kuvasz of Hungary, the Polish Tatra Sheepdog, the Slovenský Cuvac of Slovakia and the Šarplaninac (although this breed is not only coloured white like the others are), with all of which it may share a common ancestor;[3][4] and the Akbash of Turkey. [16], The Maremmano has a solid, muscular build, a thick white coat, a large head and a black nose. The coat is long and thick; it is rough to the touch, and forms a thick collar around the neck. [14][15], As sheep farming developed into an annual trek or transhumance from mountain grasslands of Abruzzo and Molise (and other parts of central Italy) south to lower pasture land in Puglia, where sheep were over-wintered[citation needed], the dogs came to play a central role in the centuries-old migration, an annual event vital to Abruzzese culture. [21] The traditional use of the Maremmano is with sheep, but the dogs can form a similar bond with cows and have been used to protect range cattle as well. [18] However, biologists dispute this division, as well as over-reliance on minor physical differences, as the dogs were bred over the centuries for their behavioral characteristics as flock guardians. [citation needed]. Seip, editors. It is large and imposing. [13], Until 1958 the Pastore Maremmano, or shepherd dog of the Maremma, and the Pastore Abruzzese, or shepherd dog of the Abruzzi, were regarded as separate breeds. The modern breed derives from selective breeding from about 1980 of a few surviving animals. [5]:107[6] The breed was recognised by the Ente Nazionale della Cinofilia Italiana in 1994;[4] it was provisionally accepted by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale in 1996, and received full acceptance in 2007.